The foundation is the starting point of every project in civil engineering, as it is the starting point for every building. Until the foundation of a building is not made, it cannot be built. If the foundation is even the slightest bit faulty, it can ruin the structure of the building. The foundation of the building can also be called its footing. Until this is not planted firmly into the ground, the structure of the building will be unable to hold itself up. The higher a building, the deeper its footing in the ground.
Types of Foundations or Footings
There is a large variety of footings and each serves a particular purpose suited to its material. People can also opt for a particular foundation or footing, but this will depend on external factors such as on what sort of soil or ground a building is going to be made on. Since footings or foundations form the base of the building, it must be sturdy and durable.
The most common type of footing is stone footing. It is most commonly used with mortar to make foundations. Dry stacked stones are sorted by size first. The larger stones are used at the bottom and angular stones are used for corners. Once the stones are laid, smaller stones or gravel is used to filled the gaps. The larger stones are removed and mortar is laid. The stones are then placed back and gravel or smaller stones are added to fill any gaps. After this, the mortar is allowed to dry. Stone footing is used all over the world and has no specification as to the type of stone used. Thus, a lot of countries use their local dry stacked stones for laying down stone foundations.
Gravel footings are most often used for outdoor sheds. They are ideal for sheds, as they do not allow water to gather. A gravel footing essentially requires an earth membrane. Once the area for the foundation has been excavated, the earth membrane is laid out as a barricade between the soil and the gravel. The gravel is then added right below ground level and the wood planks are placed on top of the gravel. The gravel footing essentially allows water to drain and can keep the wood dry.
Rubble Trench Footings
Rubble Trench footing is one of the oldest foundations. Much like gravel footing, a rubber trench footing is shallow and is filled in with stones and rubble. It is low cost and allows excellent drainage, preserving the integrity of the structure.
Pad Stone Foundation
This is the simplest type of footing, as a stone is simply laid out and the structure is supported by it.