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A Short Overview of Foundations, Stone Footings

A Short Overview of Foundations, Stone Footings

The foundation is the starting point of every project in civil engineering, as it is the starting point for every building. Until the foundation of a building is not made, it cannot be built. If the foundation is even the slightest bit faulty, it can ruin the structure of the building. The foundation of the building can also be called its footing. Until this is not planted firmly into the ground, the structure of the building will be unable to hold itself up. The higher a building, the deeper its footing in the ground.

Types of Foundations or Footings

There is a large variety of footings and each serves a particular purpose suited to its material. People can also opt for a particular foundation or footing, but this will depend on external factors such as on what sort of soil or ground a building is going to be made on. Since footings or foundations form the base of the building, it must be sturdy and durable.

Stone Footings

The most common type of footing is stone footing. It is most commonly used with mortar to make foundations. Dry stacked stones are sorted by size first. The larger stones are used at the bottom and angular stones are used for corners. Once the stones are laid, smaller stones or gravel is used to filled the gaps. The larger stones are removed and mortar is laid. The stones are then placed back and gravel or smaller stones are added to fill any gaps. After this, the mortar is allowed to dry. Stone footing is used all over the world and has no specification as to the type of stone used. Thus, a lot of countries use their local dry stacked stones for laying down stone foundations.

Gravel Footings

Gravel footings are most often used for outdoor sheds. They are ideal for sheds, as they do not allow water to gather. A gravel footing essentially requires an earth membrane. Once the area for the foundation has been excavated, the earth membrane is laid out as a barricade between the soil and the gravel. The gravel is then added right below ground level and the wood planks are placed on top of the gravel. The gravel footing essentially allows water to drain and can keep the wood dry.

Rubble Trench Footings

Rubble Trench footing is one of the oldest foundations. Much like gravel footing, a rubber trench footing is shallow and is filled in with stones and rubble. It is low cost and allows excellent drainage, preserving the integrity of the structure.

Pad Stone Foundation

This is the simplest type of footing, as a stone is simply laid out and the structure is supported by it.

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9 COMMENTS

  • Taylor Bishop
    January 8, 2018, 2:13 pm REPLY

    Thanks for helping me understand more about foundations and stone footings. I didn’t know about rubble trench footings or that they are great for drainage and can keep the integrity of the structure. I wouldn’t mind knowing some applications where this type of footing would be ideal.

  • Prof D.VENKAT REDDY
    April 22, 2019, 1:37 am REPLY

    Stone selection for foundation requires quality materials. Geological factors play a role for the formation of rock deposit-Detailed geological analysis-Prof DVREDDY-India

  • Prof D.VENKAT REDDY
    April 22, 2019, 1:37 am REPLY

    Stone selection for foundation requires quality materials. Geological factors play a role for the formation of rock deposit-Detailed geological analysis-Prof DVREDDY-India

  • Prof D.VENKAT REDDY
    April 22, 2019, 1:53 am REPLY

    ENGINEERING GEOLOGY
    BY
    D.VENKAT REDDY
    VIKAS PUBLISHERS, INDIA
    Second Edition- published 2016 -December)

    Published in 2010, the book Engineering Geology was received by the student and teaching community with great enthusiasm. Over the past 6 years it has served them well. However, like every science there are always new findings and innovations in the field with which the students and teachers need to be apprised. The second edition is the result of this very recognition.
    The second edition of the book ‘Engineering Geology’ has been updated with all that information which the author could lay his hands on. Almost every chapter has been revised and new material has been added. Thus, Chapter 2 now includes the advantages of using ‘Energy from crustal layers of the earth’. Chapter 3 shows what is needed for optimum utilization of manpower and resources. Chapters 4 and 5 include new case studies—on Exploration and Mining of Mineral Resources in India and Commercial/ Ornamental Rock Deposits of India, respectively. Chapter 3, in addition, reports the findings of the Indian Bureau of Mines of 2013. Chapter 6 discusses in detail the structural discontinuities of rock deposits and their impact on workability, mining and quarrying. Chapter 8 lists up wasteland classes and showcases preliminary area statistics of degraded and wastelands of India. It also discusses the methods of soil surveys in India and land degradation mapping.
    Chapter 9 introduces the concept of watershed and discusses the Watershed Atlas of India. Chapter 10 lists up the recent developments in ocean and coastal engineering and introduces the new and innovative Structures for economy and improved life near the coast. Chapter 11 shows the ways to save water as suggested by the Govt. of India, and makes available the BIS specification for drinking water. Chapter 12 which already lists earthquake tips, adds to the list some latest. It also showcases the latest seismic zone maps. Chapter 13 introduces new types of protective structures as guard against tsunamis, as well as provides in detail the state-wise analysis on the impact of Indian geomorphology on tsunami/ tidal waves. It also provides expert findings on the 2011 earthquake off the Pacific coast of Japan.
    Chapter 15 updates with detailed information on Indian satellites since 2000. Chapter 16 provides a study of eight major dams of India. Chapter 17 offers the data on longest rail and road tunnels in India. Chapter 18 shows the landslide preparedness plan, lists some significant landslides in India and discusses landslide affected states of India. Chapter 19 discusses the importance and negligence of geology in constructing smart cities. Chapter 20 provides data of the longest bridges in India. Chapter 21 has a lengthy discussion on economic and mining significance of select mineral deposits in India. The last chapter (number 22) discusses in detail the role of the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC) in clearing and management of constructional/civil engineering projects, and provides the categories of projects demarcated by the Govt. of India. It also provides a look into the environmental legislation in India.
    It is hoped that the new edition, rich in all relevant information, will prove to be all the more useful to the students than the first.
    I would like to thank and express my appreciation to all my friends who have extended intellectual and moral support to me while writing this book. I would also like to thank the entire editorial team of Vikas Publishing House for their expert comments and suggestions. I would also to thank the editorial team, authors and referees of International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering for providing latest updates on the subject.
    Last but not the least, I thank my beloved family – my wife Smt. Vasumathi, son-in-law Jeffrey Vanhoof,daughter Jyosna Vanhoof, , son Ravinder Reddy D, and daughter-in-law Deepthi Kurapati, granddaughters, Megan Vanhoof and Diya Vanhoof who actively supported and encouraged me in this undertaking.
    D.VENKAT EDDY
    Retd)Head Dept of Civil Engineering
    National Institute of Technology Karnataka-Surathkal-India
    .

    ENGINEERING GEOLOGY
    BY
    D.VENKAT REDDY
    VIKAS PUBLISHERS, INDIA
    Second Edition- published 2016 -December)

    Published in 2010, the book Engineering Geology was received by the student and teaching community with great enthusiasm. Over the past 6 years it has served them well. However, like every science there are always new findings and innovations in the field with which the students and teachers need to be apprised. The second edition is the result of this very recognition.
    The second edition of the book ‘Engineering Geology’ has been updated with all that information which the author could lay his hands on. Almost every chapter has been revised and new material has been added. Thus, Chapter 2 now includes the advantages of using ‘Energy from crustal layers of the earth’. Chapter 3 shows what is needed for optimum utilization of manpower and resources. Chapters 4 and 5 include new case studies—on Exploration and Mining of Mineral Resources in India and Commercial/ Ornamental Rock Deposits of India, respectively. Chapter 3, in addition, reports the findings of the Indian Bureau of Mines of 2013. Chapter 6 discusses in detail the structural discontinuities of rock deposits and their impact on workability, mining and quarrying. Chapter 8 lists up wasteland classes and showcases preliminary area statistics of degraded and wastelands of India. It also discusses the methods of soil surveys in India and land degradation mapping.
    Chapter 9 introduces the concept of watershed and discusses the Watershed Atlas of India. Chapter 10 lists up the recent developments in ocean and coastal engineering and introduces the new and innovative Structures for economy and improved life near the coast. Chapter 11 shows the ways to save water as suggested by the Govt. of India, and makes available the BIS specification for drinking water. Chapter 12 which already lists earthquake tips, adds to the list some latest. It also showcases the latest seismic zone maps. Chapter 13 introduces new types of protective structures as guard against tsunamis, as well as provides in detail the state-wise analysis on the impact of Indian geomorphology on tsunami/ tidal waves. It also provides expert findings on the 2011 earthquake off the Pacific coast of Japan.
    Chapter 15 updates with detailed information on Indian satellites since 2000. Chapter 16 provides a study of eight major dams of India. Chapter 17 offers the data on longest rail and road tunnels in India. Chapter 18 shows the landslide preparedness plan, lists some significant landslides in India and discusses landslide affected states of India. Chapter 19 discusses the importance and negligence of geology in constructing smart cities. Chapter 20 provides data of the longest bridges in India. Chapter 21 has a lengthy discussion on economic and mining significance of select mineral deposits in India. The last chapter (number 22) discusses in detail the role of the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC) in clearing and management of constructional/civil engineering projects, and provides the categories of projects demarcated by the Govt. of India. It also provides a look into the environmental legislation in India.
    It is hoped that the new edition, rich in all relevant information, will prove to be all the more useful to the students than the first.
    I would like to thank and express my appreciation to all my friends who have extended intellectual and moral support to me while writing this book. I would also like to thank the entire editorial team of Vikas Publishing House for their expert comments and suggestions. I would also to thank the editorial team, authors and referees of International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering for providing latest updates on the subject.
    Last but not the least, I thank my beloved family – my wife Smt. Vasumathi, son-in-law Jeffrey Vanhoof,daughter Jyosna Vanhoof, , son Ravinder Reddy D, and daughter-in-law Deepthi Kurapati, granddaughters, Megan Vanhoof and Diya Vanhoof who actively supported and encouraged me in this undertaking.
    D.VENKAT EDDY
    Retd)Head Dept of Civil Engineering
    National Institute of Technology Karnataka-Surathkal-India
    .

    ENGINEERING GEOLOGY
    BY
    D.VENKAT REDDY
    VIKAS PUBLISHERS, INDIA
    Second Edition- published 2016 -December)

    Published in 2010, the book Engineering Geology was received by the student and teaching community with great enthusiasm. Over the past 6 years it has served them well. However, like every science there are always new findings and innovations in the field with which the students and teachers need to be apprised. The second edition is the result of this very recognition.
    The second edition of the book ‘Engineering Geology’ has been updated with all that information which the author could lay his hands on. Almost every chapter has been revised and new material has been added. Thus, Chapter 2 now includes the advantages of using ‘Energy from crustal layers of the earth’. Chapter 3 shows what is needed for optimum utilization of manpower and resources. Chapters 4 and 5 include new case studies—on Exploration and Mining of Mineral Resources in India and Commercial/ Ornamental Rock Deposits of India, respectively. Chapter 3, in addition, reports the findings of the Indian Bureau of Mines of 2013. Chapter 6 discusses in detail the structural discontinuities of rock deposits and their impact on workability, mining and quarrying. Chapter 8 lists up wasteland classes and showcases preliminary area statistics of degraded and wastelands of India. It also discusses the methods of soil surveys in India and land degradation mapping.
    Chapter 9 introduces the concept of watershed and discusses the Watershed Atlas of India. Chapter 10 lists up the recent developments in ocean and coastal engineering and introduces the new and innovative Structures for economy and improved life near the coast. Chapter 11 shows the ways to save water as suggested by the Govt. of India, and makes available the BIS specification for drinking water. Chapter 12 which already lists earthquake tips, adds to the list some latest. It also showcases the latest seismic zone maps. Chapter 13 introduces new types of protective structures as guard against tsunamis, as well as provides in detail the state-wise analysis on the impact of Indian geomorphology on tsunami/ tidal waves. It also provides expert findings on the 2011 earthquake off the Pacific coast of Japan.
    Chapter 15 updates with detailed information on Indian satellites since 2000. Chapter 16 provides a study of eight major dams of India. Chapter 17 offers the data on longest rail and road tunnels in India. Chapter 18 shows the landslide preparedness plan, lists some significant landslides in India and discusses landslide affected states of India. Chapter 19 discusses the importance and negligence of geology in constructing smart cities. Chapter 20 provides data of the longest bridges in India. Chapter 21 has a lengthy discussion on economic and mining significance of select mineral deposits in India. The last chapter (number 22) discusses in detail the role of the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC) in clearing and management of constructional/civil engineering projects, and provides the categories of projects demarcated by the Govt. of India. It also provides a look into the environmental legislation in India.
    It is hoped that the new edition, rich in all relevant information, will prove to be all the more useful to the students than the first.
    I would like to thank and express my appreciation to all my friends who have extended intellectual and moral support to me while writing this book. I would also like to thank the entire editorial team of Vikas Publishing House for their expert comments and suggestions. I would also to thank the editorial team, authors and referees of International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering for providing latest updates on the subject.
    Last but not the least, I thank my beloved family – my wife Smt. Vasumathi, son-in-law Jeffrey Vanhoof,daughter Jyosna Vanhoof, , son Ravinder Reddy D, and daughter-in-law Deepthi Kurapati, granddaughters, Megan Vanhoof and Diya Vanhoof who actively supported and encouraged me in this undertaking.
    D.VENKAT EDDY
    Retd)Head Dept of Civil Engineering
    National Institute of Technology Karnataka-Surathkal-India
    .

  • Ethan Hansen
    May 22, 2019, 6:56 pm REPLY

    I found it interesting how you mentioned how stone foundations are common in many countries because stones have no specification or restrictions when building. My wife and I are in the process of rebuilding the playhouse on our land for our grandchildren and we want to make sure it has an international feel to boost their imaginations. I will keep this in mind as we search for a foundation repair service near us that can replace the current wooden foundation with a stone one!

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